Gondolas Passengers - Dozen Draft - Hands (Cassette)
It was at this time that all the classes were re-fitted with five inch sideboards and changes were made to the wheelbase lengths. Most of the significant class differences were diminished during the rebuild period due to more standardized specifications utilized.
Nonetheless, subtle variances between the classes still remained, ranging from side stake arrangements to different draft gear and bolster styles.
In addition to coal, these cars often handled limestone, precious minerals, pipe, maintenance equipment, and an array of other commodities as the needs of the railroad evolved. The gondola is also one of the vessels typically used in both ceremonial and competitive regattas, rowing races held amongst gondoliers using the technique of Voga alla Veneta. During their heyday as a means of public transports, teams of four men would share ownership of a gondola — three oarsmen gondoliers and a fourth person, primarily shore based and responsible for the booking and administration of the gondola Il Rosso Riserva.
However, as the gondolas became more of a tourist attraction than a mode of public transport all but one of these cooperatives and their offices have closed. The category is now protected by the Institution for the Protection and Conservation of Gondolas and Gondoliers,  headquartered in the historical center of Venice. The profession of gondolier is controlled by a guild, which issues a limited number of licenses approximately granted after periods of training hours over six months and apprenticeship, and a major comprehensive exam  which tests knowledge of Venetian history and landmarks, foreign language skills, and practical skills in handling the gondola.
Gondoliers dress in a blue or red striped top, red neckerchief, wide-brimmed straw hat and dark pants. In AugustGiorgia Boscolo became Venice's first fully licensed female gondolier. Alex Hai had begun work in gondolas earlier than Boscolo, inas Alexandra, but not with a full license because of failures to pass various tests. Gondola Nationals competitions have been held since and feature American Gondoliers competing in sprints and slalom races, .
Mark Twain visited Venice in the summer of He dedicated much of The Innocents Abroadchapter 23, to describing the curiosity of urban life with gondolas and gondoliers. The first act of Gilbert and Sullivan 's two-act comic operetta The Gondoliers is set in Venice, and its two protagonists as well as its men's chorus are of the eponymous profession, even though the political irony that makes up the core of the piece has much more to do with British society than with Venice. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Type of boat. This article is about a means of water transport. For other meanings, see Gondola disambiguation. For other uses, see Gondolier disambiguation. Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 12 February The Telegraph. ISBN OCLC Venice master artisans. As demand grew and a locomotive's power increased, larger and larger designs were unveiled. By the late 19th century the cars were 36 feet in length and could handle around 30 tons.
The modern gondola from the midth century onward is about 50 feet in length and can handle up to 70 tons according to Mike Schafer's and Mike McBride's book, " Freight Train Cars. Today the standard gondola resembling a flatcar with low sides generally measuring somewhere in the range of 50 feet with a capacity of nearly tons. Some gons look nearly like boxcars but with open tops, commonly for the purpose of handling lightweight materials such as woodchips although some railroads have modified hoppers with much higher sides for the same purpose!
Others versions feature hatched tops to cover goods from the outside weather, and some even appear as the common hopper car which typically carries coal. One of the first noticeable changes to the gondola occurred in when the Ralston Steel Car Company of Columbus, Ohio came up with a drop-bottom system with outward chutes that allowed the floor to be manually opened and use the force of gravity to quickly and efficiently remove the car's contents, which would disperse to the sides.
Many railroads found this useful in a wide range of applications, such as in maintenance-of-way service for ballast operations allowing for fast dispensing of the stone along the sides of the rails. Today, gondolas designed this way are still used in such a fashion. During the second-half of the 20th century a similar version to this design came into use, the "Bathtub" gondola.
This version employs wide, bottom "belly" doors that can be opened to immediately dispense their contents. Railroads found this design useful in coal service since the car could carry more product than the hopper which is built with chutes within the structure for unloading and yet still quickly be unloaded.
Today, this gondola has become nearly as common as the hopper. Gons are sometimes mistaken for hopper cars. The reason the car is still classified as a gondola is that it does not have angled drop-bottom hatches or chutes like open-top hopper cars.
If gons are being used to haul coal they are usually emptied all at once by being tipped upside down or having their load immediately emptied from their degree drop-bottom hatches.
In other words, hoppers contain some type of angled or sloped drop-bottom chutes, which use the force of gravity to quickly unload their cargo without having to tilt or turn the car upside down in any way. The fero da prova is an ornate figurehead finial that is fixed to the Gondolas Passengers - Dozen Draft - Hands (Cassette) of the gondola and is primarily made from iron, although other materials are also used. The rearward pointing tooth symbolises Giudecca Gondolas Passengers - Dozen Draft - Hands (Cassette).
The shape between the first finger and Doge represents the Basin of San Marco and the arched line represents the Rialto Bridge. Three further adornments are included between the fingers to show the importance of the three main islands, Murano, Burano and Torcello. A later discovery however may suggest that the fero da prova is of Gondolas Passengers - Dozen Draft - Hands (Cassette) Chinese descent, used as a ceremonial spear in rituals. Instead a rowing oar is used in conjunction with a forcola, which allows the boat to be rowed in a sculling Gondolas Passengers - Dozen Draft - Hands (Cassette).
The oar can be positioned in various ways so that the gondolier can perform other rowing functions, such reversing and stopping the boat. This also allows the oar to be maneuvered in such a way that it can perform other rowing functions, such as steering which is usually reserved for a rudder.
The forcola is an strangely shaped oarlock, or more precisely, an oar post. The gondolier can use the oar in ways that provide a variety of fulcrum positions from which to row and control the motion and direction of the boat. However, gondolas are as few as today resulting in a drastic decline in the skills and the craftsmanship employed in creating a gondola. A gondolier is the person who rows a gondola in and around the Gondolas Passengers - Dozen Draft - Hands (Cassette) of Venice and it is considered a very prestigious and privileged position to hold.
The most common route to becoming a gondolier is through the unashamedly nepotistic being kept in the family tradition of passing the trade from father to son and retaining the traditional values. Keeping the trade in the family also keeps the very valuable gondola licence in the family from generation to generation.
It is preferential for gondoliers to be of Venetian descent and it is from a very early age that they Gondolas Passengers - Dozen Draft - Hands (Cassette) to learn the art of rowing a gondola. To become a gondolier, a budding apprentice must first pass stringent exams after attending courses to learn the specialist skills required. This can take 12 — 18 months to complete. To operate as a legitimate gondolier requires a licence from the Chamber of Commerce who control the only licences available.
They must always wear black or dark blue trousers, a red and white or blue and white striped shirt and a dark jacket if needed.
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