Folk Tunes And Instruments (part 1) - Reidar Sevåg, Søren Nomeland - The Music Of Norway (Vinyl)

Folk music was already, " Lloyd rejected this in favor of a simple distinction of economic class [10] yet for him, true folk music was, in Charles Seeger 's words, "associated with a lower class" [12] in culturally and socially stratified societies.

In these terms, folk music may be seen as part of a "schema comprising four musical types: 'primitive' or 'tribal'; 'elite' or 'art'; 'folk'; and 'popular'. Music in this genre is also often called traditional music.

Although the term is usually only descriptive, in some cases people use it as the name of a genre. For example, the Grammy Award previously used the terms "traditional music" and "traditional folk" for folk music that is not contemporary folk music. From a historical perspective, traditional Søren Nomeland - The Music Of Norway (Vinyl) music had these characteristics: [12] [ verification needed ]. In folk music, a tune is a short instrumental piecea melodyoften with repeating sectionsand usually played a number of times.

A collection of tunes with structural similarities is known as a tune-family. In some traditions, tunes may be strung together in medleys or " sets.

Throughout most of human prehistory and history, listening to recorded music was not possible. Music was made by common people during both their work and leisure, as well as during religious activities. The work of economic production was often manual and communal. Manual labor often included singing by the workers, which served several practical purposes. It reduced the boredom of repetitive tasks, it kept the rhythm during synchronized pushes and pulls, and it set the pace of many activities such as plantingweedingreapingthreshingweavingand milling.

In leisure timesinging and playing musical instruments were common forms of entertainment and history-telling—even more common than today when electrically enabled technologies and widespread literacy make other forms of entertainment and information-sharing competitive. Some believe that folk music originated as art music that was changed and probably debased by oral transmission while reflecting the character of the society that produced it.

Different cultures may have different notions concerning a division between "folk" music on the one hand and of "art" and "court" music on the other.

In the proliferation of popular music genres, some traditional folk music became also referred to as " World music " or "Roots music. Folk Tunes And Instruments (part 1) - Reidar Sevåg English term " folklore ", to describe traditional folk music and dance, entered the vocabulary of many continental European nations, each of which had its folk-song collectors and revivalists.

But the term does not cover a song, dance, or tune that has been taken over ready-made and remains unchanged. The post— World War II folk revival in America and in Britain started a new genre, Contemporary Folk Musicand brought an additional meaning to the term "folk music": newly composed songs, fixed in form and by known authors, which imitated some form of traditional music.

The popularity of "contemporary folk" recordings caused the appearance of the category "Folk" in the Grammy Awards of in the term was dropped in favor of "Best Ethnic or Traditional Recording including Traditional Blues ", while brought a distinction between "Best Traditional Folk Recording" and "Best Contemporary Folk Recording".

After that, they had a "Traditional music" category that subsequently evolved into others. The term "folk", by the start of the 21st century, could cover singer songwriters, such as Donovan from Scotland and American Bob Dylanwho emerged in the s and much more. This completed a process to where "folk music" no longer meant only traditional folk music.

Traditional folk music often includes sung wordsalthough folk instrumental music occurs commonly in dance music traditions. Narrative verse looms large in the traditional folk music of many cultures. This encompasses such forms as traditional epic poetrymuch of which was meant originally for oral performance, sometimes accompanied by instruments.

Many epic poems of various cultures were pieced together from shorter pieces of traditional narrative verse, which explains their episodic structure, repetitive elements, and their frequent in medias res plot developments. Other forms of traditional narrative verse relate the outcomes of battles or describe tragedies or natural disasters. Sometimes, as in the triumphant Song of Deborah [18] found in the Biblical Book of Judgesthese songs celebrate victory.

Laments for lost battles and wars, and the lives lost in them, are equally prominent in many traditions; these laments keep alive the cause for which the battle was fought.

The narratives of traditional songs often also remember folk heroes such as John Henry or Robin Hood. Some traditional song narratives recall supernatural events or mysterious deaths. Hymns and other forms of religious music are often of traditional and unknown origin. Western musical notation was originally created to preserve the lines of Gregorian chantwhich before its invention was taught as an oral tradition in monastic communities. Traditional songs such as Green grow the rushes, O present religious lore in a mnemonic form, as do Western Christmas carols and similar traditional songs.

Work songs frequently feature call and response structures and are designed to enable the laborers who sing them to coordinate their efforts in accordance with the rhythms of the songs.

They are frequently, but not invariably, composed. In the American armed forcesa lively oral tradition preserves jody calls "Duckworth chants" which are sung while soldiers are on the march. Professional sailors made similar use of a large body of sea shanties. Love poetryoften of a tragic or regretful nature, prominently figures in many folk traditions. Nursery rhymes and nonsense verse used to amuse or quiet children also are frequent subjects of traditional songs.

Music transmitted by word of mouth Folk Tunes And Instruments (part 1) - Reidar Sevåg a community, in time, develops many variants, because this kind of transmission cannot produce word-for-word and note-for-note accuracy.

Indeed, many traditional singers are quite creative and deliberately modify the material they learn. Scottish traveler Jeannie Robertson from Aberdeen, made the next recorded version in She has changed it to make reference to "Jock Stewart", one of her relatives, and there are no Irish references.

In Scottish artist Archie Fisher deliberately altered the song to remove the reference to a dog being shot. In The Pogues took it full circle by restoring all the Irish references. Field researchers in traditional song see below have encountered countless versions of this ballad throughout the English-speaking world, and these versions often differ greatly from each other.

None can reliably claim to be the original, and it is possible that the "original" version ceased to be sung centuries ago. Many versions can lay an equal claim to authenticity. The influential folklorist Cecil Sharp felt that these competing variants of a traditional song would undergo a process of improvement akin to biological natural selection : only those new variants that were the most appealing to ordinary singers would be picked up by others and transmitted onward in time.

Thus, over time we would expect each traditional song to become aesthetically ever more appealing — it would be collectively composed to perfection, as it were, by the community. Literary interest in the popular ballad form dates back at least to Thomas Percy and William Wordsworth. English Elizabethan and Stuart composers had often evolved their music from folk themes, the classical suite was based upon stylised folk-dances, and Joseph Haydn 's use of folk melodies is noted.

But the emergence of the term "folk" coincided with an "outburst of national feeling all over Europe" that was particularly strong at the edges of Europe, where national identity was most asserted.

While the loss of traditional folk music in the face of the rise of popular music is a worldwide phenomenon, it is not one occurring at a uniform rate throughout the world.

The process is most advanced "where industrialization and commercialisation of culture are most advanced" [20] but also occurs more gradually even in settings of lower technological advancement.

However, the loss of traditional music is slowed in nations or regions where traditional folk music is a badge of cultural or national identity, for instance in the case of BangladeshHungaryIndia, Ireland, PakistanScotlandLatviaTurkeyPortugalBrittany, GaliciaGreece and Crete.

Tourism revenue can provide a potent incentive to preserve local cultural distinctives. Local government often sponsors and promotes performances during tourist seasons, and revives lost traditions. Much of what is known about folk music prior to the development of audio recording technology in the 19th century comes from fieldwork and writings of scholars, collectors and proponents.

Starting in the 19th century, academics and amateur scholars, taking note of the musical traditions being lost, initiated various efforts to preserve the music of the people.

One such effort was the collection by Francis James Child in the late 19th century of the texts of over three hundred ballads in the English and Scots traditions called the Child Balladssome of which predated the 16th century. Sharp campaigned with some success to have English traditional songs in his own heavily edited and expurgated versions to be taught to school children in hopes of reviving and prolonging the popularity of those songs.

Throughout the s and early to mids, American scholar Bertrand Harris Bronson published an exhaustive four-volume collection of the then-known variations of both the texts and tunes associated with what came to be known as the Child Canon.

He also advanced some significant theories concerning the workings of oral-aural tradition. Similar activity was also under way in other countries. One of the most extensive was perhaps the work done in Riga by Krisjanis Baronswho between the years and published six volumes that included the texts ofLatvian folk songs, the Latvju dainas. In Norway the work of collectors such as Ludvig Mathias Lindeman was extensively used by Edvard Grieg in his Lyric Pieces for piano and in other works, which became immensely popular.

Around this time, composers of classical music developed a strong interest in collecting traditional songs, and a number of outstanding composers carried out their own field work on traditional music. These composers, like many of their predecessors, both made arrangements of folk songs and incorporated traditional material into original classical compositions. The advent of audio recording technology provided folklorists with a revolutionary tool to preserve vanishing musical forms.

Their studies expanded to include Native American musicbut still treated folk music as a historical item preserved in isolated societies as well. John Lomax the father of Alan Lomax was the first prominent scholar to study distinctly American folk music such as that of cowboys and southern blacks. Cecil Sharp also worked in America, recording the traditional songs of the Appalachian Mountains in — in collaboration with Maud Karpeles and Olive Dame Campbell and is considered the first major scholar covering American folk music.

One strong theme amongst folk scholars in the early decades of the 20th century was regionalismthe analysis of the diversity of folk music and related cultures based on regions of the US rather than based on a given song's historical roots. Later, a dynamic of class and circumstances was added to this.

Carl Sandburg often traveled the U. He also collected songs in his travels and, inpublished them in the book The American Songbag. This was the final element of the foundation upon which the early folk music revivalists constructed their own view of Americanism. Sandburg's working class Americans joined with the ethnicallyraciallyand regionally diverse citizens that other scholars, public intellectuals, and folklorists celebrated their own definitions of the American folk, definitions that the folk revivalists used in constructing their own understanding of American folk music, and an overarching American identity".

Prior to the s, the study of folk music was primarily the province of scholars and collectors. The s saw the beginnings of larger scale themes, commonalities, themes and linkages in folk music developing in the populace and practitioners as well, often related to the Great Depression. During this time folk music began to become enmeshed with political and social activism themes and movements.

Communist Party's interest in folk music as a way to reach and influence Americans, [28] and politically active prominent folk musicians and scholars seeing communism as a possible better system, through the lens of the Great Depression. Folk music festivals proliferated during the s. Louis, Missouri in The American folk music revivalists of the s approached folk music in different ways.

Sarah Gertrude Knott and John Lomax emphasized the preservation of songs as artifacts of deceased cultures. Botkin and Alan Lomax maintained that songs only retain relevance when used by those cultures which retain the traditions which birthed those songs. Charles Seeger and Lawrence Gellert emphasized music's role "in 'people's' struggles for social and political rights".

Sometimes folk musicians became scholars and advocates themselves. For example, Jean Ritchie — was the youngest child of a large family from Viper, Kentucky that had preserved many of the old Appalachian traditional songs.

Ritchie, living in a time when the Appalachians had opened up to outside influence, was university educated and ultimately moved to New York City, where she made a number of classic recordings of the family repertoire and published an important compilation of these songs. See also Hedy West [ why? In Januarythe American Folklife Center at the Library of Congresswith the Association for Cultural Equity, announced that they would release Lomax's vast archive of and later recording in digital form.

Lomax spent the last 20 years of his life working on an Interactive Multimedia educational computer project he called the Global Jukeboxwhich included 5, hours of sound recordings,feet of film, 3, videotapesand 5, photographs. As a result, Danish folk music is distinct form other Scandinavian folk traditions, and it is more influenced by the British and northern Europe than Sweden or Norway. Folk music of Denmark, is mostly based on fiddle and accordion. Danish fiddlers usually play in groups.

It is more common to use guitar in folk bands in Denmark, other than other Scandinavians countries. Nordic folk dance music is also common in Denmark. Danish version of it accompanied by fiddle and accordion and generally it is a rhythmic dance music. The oldest version of these dances called Pols which is a pair dance.

And - of course - there is music. Over 5 hours, 72 songs on 4 CDs, sorted by subject: Fairport - A History An outline of the development of the music of Fairport Convention sincemainly one highlight from every era. Including parts from Fairports first demo tape! The prelude to the compilation is - of course - "Meet on the ledge". Rareport Convention A collection of rare and unreleased material, private recordings, sessions, Among them cover versions e.

A Fairport History Fairport songs, that are about english history, among them some well known ballads like "Red and Gold" or "Fotheringay". You can really learn something from the descriptions you find in the book. Classic Convention As the title already says, you find here all classic songs from Fairport. All well known songs in unknown versions. One of the highlights of this CD is a remix of the ballad "Matty Groves" as radio report from the site of crime including quotes from eye-witnesses like "We heard everything, he was screaming 'Get up, get up'" - super!

The last song builds the bridge to the first CD: "Meet on the ledge" Altogeher a lot of material, that should enjoy every Fairport fan. Altough most of the songtitles are well known, the box contains predominantly unreleased or unavailable material: B-sides, alternative versions, live versions oder sessions.

And even though some recordings are not in excellent CD quality-not surprising since they are recorded a long time before the digital age of music-they are nostalgic documents from old Fairport-days.

Thanks for the compilation and Happy Birthday Fairport! The record is of well-known and beloved Fairport quality. A balanced mixture of songs and instrumentals, some new, some newly recorded like the classic Fairport song "Now be thankful" by Richard Thompson and Dave Swarbrick. Lively, happy songs invite to dance and to whistle and alternate with reflective or sad ballads, like "The Deserter"-one of my favourite songs from this disk.

Altogether, not really new music, but a really nice record, as we are used to hear from Fairport Convention. Woodworm Records www. Not really a new idea, but a good idea. Mother Africa is a record containing african music with european influences. Traditional percussion and chants together with electric guitar, bass, drums and some keyboards. But they stay in the background and do not disturb the characteristics of a song.

A well-done mixture. Typical world-music with african groove. A little disadvantage is, that the CD has no booklet, although not only reviewers but also listeners might be interested in the band and the songs and want to know Søren Nomeland - The Music Of Norway (Vinyl) than just a list of songs and musicians. However, the music is good and friends of this kind of music should try this CD.

The period of changes with the Batties has not been over since the last album, "Happy Daze" : During the last year, the second short period of the Batties with a female singer, Karine Polwart, ended, because Karine decided to dedicate more time to her own band, the excellent Malinky. Once again the Batties had to be on the look-out for a new member. Although it had so many line-up changes during recent years, the Battlefield Band recipe and sound has remained Søren Nomeland - The Music Of Norway (Vinyl) the same.

The album showcases the talents of the Batties both as musicians and as composers in the traditional style. The songs represent a bit of a homecoming of the in Glasgow founded Battlefield Band, to the shores of the Firth of Clyde; with two songs, "The Bonnie Jeannie Deans" and "Rotheseay Bay" the latter giving me fond memories of the beautiful sunrises over Rothesay Bay seen on the way to the tent at the Isle of Bute Folk Festival.

Pat Kilbride remembers in "Camden Town" his times in London. The remaining two songs cover the most important Scottish subject: Whiskey. The only criticism of this album is one I have had for many of Batties albums - the keyboard is only nice as long as it is played as a piano, in certain places it sounds rather awful to me. That criticism aside, this is another strong album of the Battlefield Band; it might not offer much new things, but - as you would expect from the Batties - it presents Scottish folk music at its very best.

Homepage of the artist: www. She is known for her more experimental approach to Cape Breton songs, yet always staying close to the tradition. Mary Jane comes from a part of the world where Gaelic language has remained for a long time alive: Cape Breton Island, on the East coast of Canada, an island which attracted hundreds of years ago Scottish settlers.

This album sees Mary Jane going back to her roots, to Gaelic Cape Breton songs and music in their pure form. It is a beautiful collection of tradtional songs, presented in various acoustic ways, mainly based on the traditional singing style, but with a bit of a modern twist to them. Many songs are sparsely and skilfully accompanied, by piano, fiddle, bagpipes or guitar, others are a-capella songs. Two tracks showcase the tradition of waulking songs, with several guest Cape Breton singers singing the choruses as a choir, with the appropriate waulking sounds giving the songs the traditional feel.

To make the album complete, a tune represents the instrumental traditions of Cape Breton, played by a duo of fiddle and piano. A beautiful album, and a wonderful showcase of Cape Breton Gaelic traditions. The instrumental side of the band features some of the younger talent of Scotland, with harpist and piano player Ingrid Henderson, Blazin' Fiddles' Bruce MacGregor and guitarist Chaz Stewart. Cliar's repertoire is steeped in Gaelic traditional songs from Scottish Highland traditions.

Thanks to ceolachan rolling the ball on this one! Hey guys! Maybe you can use google translate or something? If you are a member of The Session, log in to add a comment. Membership is free, and it only takes a moment to sign up. The last one you supplied, ceolachan, was particularly helpful.

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