Freunde, Vernehmet Die Geschichte - Various - Unvergängliche Stimmen (CD)
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Zwar ist alle der Frevel schon lange zur Sprache gekommen, Ja, ein Tag war gesetzt, zu schlichten solche Beschwerden; Er erbot sich zum Eide, doch bald besann er sich anders Und entwischte behend nach seiner Feste.
Doch Wackerlos' Klage will wenig bedeuten. Und der Panther begann: Was helfen Klagen und Worte! Da steht er! Seht die Wunden an ihm, dem frommen Manne, den keiner Zu beleidigen denkt. Isegrim sagte darauf. So wird es bleiben, und leider Wird uns Reineke nie was Gutes erzeigen. Reinekens Neffe, der Dachs, nahm jetzt die Rede, und mutig Sprach er zu Reinekens Bestem, so falsch auch dieser bekannt war.
Alt und wahr, Herr Isegrim! Doch ist es ein leichtes. Isegrim kam von ferne geschlichen, verzehrte die Fische. Reineke konnte vor Zorn nicht reden, doch was er sich dachte, Denket euch selbst. Aber ich schweige davon. Wird Reineke selber gefordert, Wird er sich besser verteidigen.
Sollte man nicht die Knaben bestrafen, und ginge der Leichtsinn, Ginge die Unart so hin, wie sollte die Jugend erwachsen? Erbarmt Euch, wie ich verletzt bin, Meine Kinder und ich. Hier seht Ihr Reinekens Werke! Immer schlich er bei Nacht um die Mauer und lauschte beim Tore, Aber die Hunde bemerktens; da mocht er laufen! Dann ging er und sagte: Gott dem Herren seid mir befohlen! Ich ging mit ihnen zusammen Vor die Mauer hinaus, wir freuten uns alle der Freiheit.
O, erbarmt Euch des bittern Schmerzes! Seht, hier liegt sie! Er hat es getan, o! Leb ich noch aber ein Jahr, so soll es ihn wahrlich gereuen! Doch was helfen die Worte! Domino placebo begann die Gemeine, sie sangen Alle Verse davon. Ach, hier liegt sie! Da trat er davor und besann sich ein wenig; Endlich rief er und sprach: Herr Oheim, seid Ihr zu Hause? Verzeiht mir!
Seid zu jeglicher Stunde, mein Oheim, willkommen! O Himmel! Braun versetzte darauf. Was war es, Oheim? Doch ich esse sie nur aus Not; nun bin ich geschwollen. Wider Willen schluckt ich das Zeug, wie sollt es gedeihen?
Kann ich es immer vermeiden, so bleibt mirs ferne vom Gaumen. Dienen werd ich Euch wieder. Nein, wahrhaftig! Honig hat er! Gehen wir, sagte der Fuchs: es soll an Honig nicht fehlen. Denn ich kenne niemand von allen meinen Verwandten, Den ich verehrte, wie Euch! Doch kommt! Reineke lief ihm zuvor, und blindlings folgte der Braune. Will mirs gelingen, so dachte der Fuchs: ich bringe dich heute Noch zu Markte, wo dir ein bittrer Honig zuteil wird.
Aber mit alle der Pein war nichts gewonnen; er glaubte Nimmer von dannen zu kommen; so meint' auch Reineke freudig. Sagt, wie schmeckt es? Da ging Reineke wieder nach Malepartus, der Feste. Sie folgten und liefen, Jeder bewehrte sich eilig, so gut er konnte. Was half ihm, das Haupt zu befreien? Er hatte zu schwimmen Nie versucht und hoffte sogleich das Leben zu enden. Oheim hab ich ihn immer genannt, nun ist er am Baume Tot geblieben; des will ich mich freun, solang ich nur lebe.
Klagen und schaden wird er nicht mehr! Endlich rief er ihn an: Herr Oheim, find ich Euch wieder? Seid Ihr ein Abt? Erkenn ich Braunen? Ja, bei meiner Ehre, bei meiner Krone! Halt ich mein Wort nicht, so trag ich kein Schwert mehr, ich will es geloben! So rieten sie alle zusammen. Aber Hinze versetzte: Zum Schaden oder zum Frommen Mag es gereichen, komm ich zu ihm, wie soll ichs beginnen?
Seid Ihr auch gleich kein Riese gewachsen, Seid Ihr doch klug und gelehrt. Da gehorchte der Kater und sagte: Euer Wille geschehe! Reineke sprach: Willkommen dahier, geliebtester Neffe! Nun aber versteht sichs, Gerne geh ich mit Euch. Hinze versetzte darauf. Auf der Heide scheinet der Mond, die Wege sind trocken.
Hinze glaubt' ihm und folgte; sie kamen zur Scheune des Pfaffen, Zu der lehmernen Wand. Glaubt Ihr, sagte der Kater, es sei hier sicher zu kriechen? Da versetzte der Fuchs, der Schelm: Wer konnte das wissen! Singet man so bei Hofe zum Essen? Es klingt mir bedenklich. Und so ging Reineke weiter. Und er hatte sich eben was ausgesonnen. Isegrim war nach Hofe gegangen, das wollt er benutzen. Reineke trat in die Wohnung der Frauen und fand sie nicht heimisch. Als Frau Gieremund kam des Morgens, wie es nur tagte, Sprach sie: Ist niemand kommen, nach mir zu fragen?
Da rief Gieremund aus: Er soll es bezahlen! Da das Reineke sah, lief er zur anderen Seite Krummen Weges herein und kam und macht' ihr zu schaffen. Und Reineke sagte dagegen: Ist es noch niemals geschehn, so mag es jetzo geschehen. Wenig Ehre verschafft es, sein Weib mit andern zu sparen, Wie nun Reineke tat. Und so dachte die Frau, sich selber Recht zu verschaffen, Ihrer Ehre zu wahren, und doppelt war sie verloren. Gott sei Dank! So jauchzte Martinchen.
So jammert' Sie die Schande des Herrn und seine schwere Verwundung. Wer hat ein Auge zu viel? Seine Gesundheit aufs Spiel zu setzen und dennoch am Ende Reineken nicht zu stellen? Ich denke, niemand versucht es. Ohne mich kann der Hof nicht bestehn. Drum hab ich immer gezaudert. Ihr glaubet mir nicht die Unruh, die ich empfinde. Redet Deutsch, versetzte der Dachs, damit ichs verstehe. Reineke sagte: Ich habe mich freilich, wie sollt ich es leugnen!
So hab ich ihn immer Scherzend Oheim genannt, und wir sind keine Verwandte. Denn ich lief in die Wohnung des Pfaffen und traf ihn beim Essen, Und ein fetter Kapaun ward eben vor ihn getragen, Wohlgebraten; ich schnappte darnach und trug ihn von dannen.
Schlaget, werfet, fanget und stechet! Und alle kamen und schrien: Schlagt! Er nahm das Huhn mir vom Tische! Allen rief der Pater nun zu: Hierher nur! Was er nur konnte, dachte der Wolf. Und er hatte sich unrein gemacht, da warf man mit Abscheu Vor das Dorf ihn hinaus: er lag in schlammiger Grube, Denn sie glaubten ihn tot. Wie er noch endlich entkommen, das hab ich niemals erfahren.
Ich sprach: Vernehmet Die Geschichte - Various - Unvergängliche Stimmen (CD) vorne pflegten zu sitzen, Hab' ich selber geholt, die andern sitzen dahinten. Geht nur unverdrossen voran und tretet behutsam. Freilich der Balken war schmal, auf dem wir gingen. Und erschrocken erwachten die Leute, sie schliefen am Feuer.
Sagt, was fiel zum Fenster herein? In der Ecke fanden sie ihn und schlugen und gerbten Ihm gewaltig das Fell; mich wundert, wie er entkommen. Denn solange sie lebt, verwindet sie schwerlich die Schande. Alles hab ich Euch jetzt gebeichtet, dessen ich irgend Mich zu erinnern vermag, was meine Seele beschweret.
Sprechet mich los! Reineke sprach: So will ich es tun, so sei es geschworen! Und so war die Beichte vollendet. Reineke pflegte sie oft zu besuchen. Handelt Ihr so? Und Reineke sagte: Hab ich es doch in Gedanken getan! Grimbart sah es und rief. Habt Ihr den Frieden gehalten, den ich den Tieren geboten? Den ich geschworen? Da steht der Hahn! Ihr habt ihm die Kinder, Falscher, leidiger Dieb!
Seine Gesundheit verlor der arme Hinze! Wie langsam Wird der verwundete Braun von seinen Schmerzen genesen! Aber ich schelt Euch nicht weiter. Doch es komme, was will; ich stehe redlich zu Rechte. Nun war Vernehmet Die Geschichte - Various - Unvergängliche Stimmen (CD) geschehen! Jetzt gab Reineke selbst das Spiel verloren; es hatten Seine klugen Worte nur wenig geholfen. Habet acht und haltet zusammen! Isegrim sprach: Was helfen die Worte?
Seinem Weibe befahl der Wolf besonders: Bei deinem Leben! Braun versetzte: Stellt nur die Leiter, ich will ihn schon halten. Seht doch! Es begleiteten freilich Nicht so viele den sterbenden Mann. Immer, immer hinauf! Viele jammerte das. Sie sprachen untereinander: Klein ist die Bitte, gering nur die Frist! Spiritus Domini helfe mir nun!
Lernte hurtig sie kennen. Wir durchstrichen zusammen das Land. Ja, Schlimmeres hab ich erfahren. Saget an! Ich vermahn Euch, Reineke, rief sie: bedenket! Die lange Heimfahrt steht Euch bevor, entladet reuig die Seele; Saget die lautere Wahrheit und redet mir deutlich vom Morde.
Saget die Wahrheit, bedenkt das Gewissen, entladet die Seele! Reineke sagte darauf. Ich will Euch gerne berichten. Er sagte: Sprichst du die Wahrheit? Bebend sagte Reineke das und schien zu verzagen. Nun vernehmet die List, und wie der Fuchs sich gewendet, Seine Frevel wieder zu decken und andern zu schaden. Einmal lag ich versteckt in der Erde mit Sorgen und Sinnen, Wie ich entdeckte den Schatz, von dem mir so vieles bekannt war.
Und so eilt' er hinweg nach seinem Gewerbe. Und Reineke! Wo sind sie zu finden Die sich selber verderben, nur Euch das Leben zu fristen? Glaubet ihm nicht! Meinet Ihr so? Einmal trau ich, zum letztenmal noch! Wo er liegt, beschreib ich Euch nun, ich sage die Wahrheit.
Manchen Zierat seht Ihr daran und Edelgesteine Goldnes Kunstwerk; man macht es nicht mehr, wer wollt es bezahlen? Reineke, redlicher Fuchs! So sagte der Heuchler. Lampen rief er darauf, und Lampe zauderte bebend. Reineke rief. Lampe sprach: Das kann ich wohl sagen. Endlich erbarmet' es mich, als ich ihn mager und krank sah, Half ihm treulich davon, er ist mein naher Verwandter. Sechster Gesang. Ist Reineke wieder zu Gnaden gekommen, Braucht er jegliche Kunst, uns alle drei zu verderben.
Guter Rat ist teuer, versetzte der Braune: das seh ich. Isegrim sagte dagegen: Das Ding ist seltsam! Ich hab ihn aufs neue zu Gnaden empfangen. Es lohne Gott Euch die Milde! Aber Isegrim lag und schwieg mit Braunen zusammen; Beide waren elend genug, gebunden, verwundet Und vom Feinde verspottet.
So sprach er. Aber ich tue Reineken selbst nichts Grades noch Krummes. Was geht mich der Bischof im Dom an?
Reineke macht die Wallfahrt nach Rom, und wollt Ihr das hindern? Was es mochte, half es denn auch; das kann man sich denken. Warum das? Habet Urlaub! Es lagen indessen Braun und Isegrim, beide gefangen, in Jammer und Schmerzen.
Ihr lebet gerade, Wie ich als Klausner gelebt. Was habt Ihr erfahren? Aber Lampe vernahm erschrocken die drohenden Worte, War verwirrt und wollte sich retten und eilte, zu fliehen. Ich bin verloren! Der Pilger Bringt mich um! Doch schrie er nicht lange: denn Reineke hatt ihm Bald die Kehle zerrissen. Und so empfing er den Gastfreund. Kommt nun, sagt' er: und essen wir schnell, denn fett ist der Hase, Guten Geschmackes. Esset nur, sagte Reineke, zu! Hilf Himmel! Das sind Fische nach meinem Geschmack!
Da brauch ich nicht eben Tief ins Wasser zu tauchen; ich hab sie immer gegessen, Da ich als Klausner mich hielt. Elend sind wir und fremd in jedem anderen Lande; Hier ist alles nach unserm Begehren.
Ihr bleibet der Meister Eurer Bauern. Leben wir hier doch sicher genug! Wie stark ist die Feste! Es macht mir keine Besorgnis. Ich fasse mich kaum. So sagte mir einst ein Weiser im Beichtstuhl: Ein gezwungener Eid bedeute wenig. Das kann mich Keinen Katzenschwanz hindern! Ich meine den Eid, versteht nur. Wie Ihr gesagt habt, soll es geschehen. Ich bleibe zu Hause. Das sei ihm geschworen! So kommt doch! Gehet sachte voraus.
Lieber Neffe, nehmet sie mit, ich habe sie fertig. Wie sie schwatzten! Alles das glaubte der Widder Bellyn. Neffe und Herr, nun seh ich, Ihr liebt mich, Wollt mich ehren. Nun sagt, was meint Ihr noch weiter? Geht nicht Lampe mit mir in dieser Stunde von hinnen? Gott sei bei Euch! Haojna, or Verethraghna the angel of victorious battles, or Anahita the angel of the waters. In the Gathas we fail to. Are we to explain this as a simple accident?
I would regard such a supposition, of course, as an error, although I am convinced on the other side, however doubtful or critical every documsntum e silentio is. There are sometimes circumstances under which we arrive at nothing by the assumption of an accident, and by which much obscurity and confusion is caused. If in the Gathas we could nowhere find a convenient occasion for mentioning Mithra or I'ishtrya or the Fravashis generally, it might be explained as an accident when their 8.
Gathas ranke no mention. One cannot say that in general no occasion is found to name them but their non -mention is evidently the result of an. But, as we have observed, suchanthi'opomorphous conceptions are quite foreign to the Gathas, Those genii, or the contrary, who with Ahiira Mazda are mentioned in the Gathas, es[ eri. Sraosha perhaps forms only an exce[ tion. Reform is an eneigetic opposition against the ancient Arian nature-worship.
Consequently, not a single one of the genii that Ijehjng to the latter cult, occurs in the. The results to which this reaction led, are placed before. The Pahlavi seems to have understood ''magic. Nevertheless, at this day every and unprejudiced investigator concedes the fjict that many a heathen element is still found hidden It is well-known in our national ideas and customs.
Thus Thor, god of tempest, the constant attendant of Wofan, has become Saint Peter ; and we can no longer be astonished if Peter lias also taken upon himself, according designations. As regards Parsiism the case. Thus a belief was soniething foreign to Christianity. Khshathra denotes the kingdom," the dominion of the pions and fiUthful here on earth, and the kingdom of heaven in the ''.
If we Will take an external view of the matter, we must concede that the Amesha-spentas scarcely seem to play a pait inferior to. It is not the wliicli.
Siniilar personifications of abstract ideas are occasionally noticed also in the. Psalms vide unto His Mercy and adorers, so that glory will stay in the land, truth have met together aint righteotrsness and peace do kiss one another.
Truth shall spring out of the earth d. In that case I might cnmp. Thus, for example, Maztia's. Consequently, the belief in the Amesha-spentas does not interfere with the monuheisra of the Gatldc theology. It is He Who gives decision Being upon all, since everytiiing happens according to His will He is of one nature with them all, Yai5?
They issue from Him, and go back unto Him. Ahnra Mazda existed fiist of all. Ivhshathra and. Who, throuj;! I cannot specify any Gathic passage where ashi may in the : t. The progress of the development of an abstract idea into the name of a yazata is clearly perceptible as regards the word ashi in the period which intervenes between the epoch of the Gathas and the age of the later Avesta.
However, no such traits are observable in the Gathas. The theoloiiy of the Gths is monotheistic. Ahura is the Godhead per se. Mazda 4 This monotheism is in no way interfered with by the genii alluded to in theGtbs, since these Amesha 3. But where man can, by the power of his moral freedom of choice, decide upon goodness, and turn himself away from evil or vice, as is. Zarathushtra and the other poets of the Gths have endeavoured to in. Others will very easily find out certain passages, of which the or.
However, such is not the case in the Gths. All these names evidently denote, without any distinction, the evil spirit who is called simply Agra Mainyu in the later Avesta.
The same when it is said probably the value of Achishtem-mano, Yasna XXX, 6, that the demons flock together around. Nay, it even appears that in the same passage Aeshma, too.
But where both the good and evil spirits are. Evil is good, and only goodne? The first thing which the twins produced, is life or death, or, as it may perhaps be expressed. Both naturally stand in a close reciprocal relation. So early as in the Gths we discover numerous and important hints upon ethics and eschatology. Now, we must emphasize this fact that at a early period the Gths knew about this ethical which There ethical also is.
In like manner, Yasna LI, 21 designates piety as the fruit. But it would be only a limitation which is not vindicated by tlie Avesta texts, were we to regard this triple moral idea exclusively as ritual expressions. That the mind or thought settles the fundamental tone of this moral triad, so that speech and actions must be dependent upon it, and judged according to it, is clearly enough declared by the prophet when he speaks of the words and deeds of a good mind Yasna XLV, 8foster, in.
There is here no original sin for. This is certainly a sound moral standpoint which places all responsibility upon man himself, and deprives him of the possibility of making any excuse for his laxity by saying that the matter did not lie in his power or was a result of destiny. Nay, it is even a free voluntary act of the Evil Spirit liiraself that. This doctrine of the free volition of man conforms with the opinion ali'eady expressed by me above that religion is a matter of understanding or judgment, and that righteousness and truth on the one hand, and impiety and falsehood on the other hand, naturally According to the stand in the closest connection.
God has given him his power of judgment, and he who has ears may hear, and he who has intellect may choose, what is right and true. The a blind fate. The exhortation that every one shall persevere in righteousness and devotion, and shall not get tired of it, forms rightly and precisely fulfilment of the true obligations. The highest goodness is the property of jMazda. From Him it reaches unto to. The Vedic singers, on the contrary, pray for horr'.
The absence of cult and ceremonies is a conspicuous feature of the Gathas when contrasted with the later form the object of his wish. Vendidad teaclies, is inconceivable. Tlie absence of any reference to the priesthood as of ritual and well as to a well-organized system ceremonies can be quite easily explained by the details, just as the. However, those two phenomena, a. Hence, in the earliest period of Zoroastrianism the conception of a compensating justice meted out in the next world, was It formed one of the ground-plurs already strong.
With the latter follow, as separation of the wicked frotn it would seem, the perfect the good, and the abolition of the negative after which the positive, realistic, and the good alone will survive. Thee," asks the poet and Voim-mano, the possessor of knowledge, and the abode which belongs to Ahura in shall I see.
XXXII, Whosoever has overcome lying and deceit by dint of truth, will receive from Mazda the heavenly kingdom and the eternal bliss Yasna XXX, 8 ; and whosoever has adhered firmly to the Veh-Diii "Good Religion," will enter unhindered the dwelling of Y dui.
Further, their. Here Zoroastrianism exhibits a strong opposinatural reh'gions, which conceive the of the future life. Such is the compensation in the next world for tlie disproportion between reward and punish.
Mazda Who existed from the beginning of the world has laid it down that in His power evil shall be the retribution of the evil, and good the Vernehmet Die Geschichte - Various - Unvergängliche Stimmen (CD) of the. It is still free from many later additions. It will at the same time enable also the European who is himself not in a position to study the original texts of the Sacred Writings of the Parsees, to form a correct estimate. The earliest contact between Grajcism and Mao'ism we are informed of, is an intercourse between.
Pythagoras and the Magi, which lasted for several Whilst ancient and modern writers vary as to the year of the birth of this sage, and place it at one time in orat another in B. Writings to Zoroaster and his Dqctrine. He stayed there for another 12 years and went afterwards to Samos, when he was about 5G years Theolog. That Pythagoras there been taken.
Pythagoras had been in Egypt is affirmed by Herodotusthat a man so ciirioos in religious; but Matters should visit also Babylon, the metropolis of.
Clemens Alexandrinus, Stromata, I p. He was in Egypt when Poiyerates recommended him by letters t Amasis. He learned their language, as is stated by Antiphion in his book on those men who excelled in virtue, and afterwards he went to the Magi and Chaldseans. CO of whose writings a very large frag. But the world is a musical harmony, wherefore the sun circulation,".
Zaratas gave an explanation, says Aristoxenas, in the are two demons, a celesand a terrestrial one ; the latter takes liis origin from the earth, and is water; but the celestial one is fire Then follows the coupled with air, warm and cold. In another passage, too, Hippolytus mentions Zaratas B. It is sufficient to state that they knew the difference between the Magiau and the Chaldsean.
Jidian'MH as-erts surnamed Polyhistor, Qit. COO B, have the :. If Pythagoras came to Babylon at the latest under Cambyses for those who antedate the year of his birth must likewise Zarathushtrian doctrine that he. And if we might concede that the Avhole account of the acquaintthushtrian Reform.
This may be some ti-ansference from the Chalda'an. Here I may add what is related about the travels of Democritus who was born about B. He wandered about, according to his.
So there cannot be the least doubt as to But when, in consequence of the Permore of the conquests of Alexander the Great, more abundant and more faithful news referring to Persian affairs came across to Europe, the attention of learned Greeks was niore and more drawn also to Zarathuslitra and his system. The earliest Greek writer who mentions Zoroaster, is Xanthus the Lydian, granting that the latter's age and authorship are accepted as fully established.
For there are well-founded reasons to doubt especially the time in he came to the Chaldseans and and to the Magi and to the sages, of India," Suidas s. As In his book a fact which happened under Artaxerxes I. Darius Hystaspes in Olympifvd 70. Strabo I, p. But we are not compelled to believe that Xanthus was still living at the beginning of the said war, since it.
Yet so early a writer as Atlienteus, who to the authentlcltv of the critic. Ephorus B. History of Greek Fragments,' p. But even if we admit hypothetically that the Ludiakd of Xanthus Avas written ] y Dionjsius Scytobrachion, what is proved by it against the Magikd? The doubt of Artemon exclusively refers to the former book". But even without this help we are justified in believing that Xanthus the Lydian had treated of matters relating to the Magi, as long as the contrary opinion has not been Creuzer, it.
For tlie lofjia or sayings of Zoroaster, which occur to the minds of Persians, are designated by this very circumstance as something very old and forgotten, and in the next passage the. Welcker is not justified in supporting a contradiction between the Majlld and the Ludiul'd ; for nobody ascribes the Majikd lo Dionysius Scytobrachion. Here I will lay no stress upon the fact that Herodotus, too, contains some information draAvnfrom Xanthus, as, e. Ill, 16 ; the marriage with one's sister III, 31 which he traces back, it is true, to Cambyses.
Rather we must insist. The ter to be far older than, or. Auramazdian religion existed as early as the time of Darius and predominated in the Persian Empire, and yet Herodotus does not mention Zoroaster or AhuraMazda. This problem cannot, I believe, be explained by those who make Zoroaster a contemporary of Hystaspes, the father of Darius. However, not taking into consideration the Zarathushhow was it possible that Herodotus did not even know the prophet Zoroaster, whilst Plato, who floutrian epoch.
The description given by the latter concerning Persian. XXII, 3, horses, The camels, cattle, and smaller animals are vowed. II, p. That he does not mention the name of Zarathushtra, whose religion he interprets, is, we may hence infer, a mere matter of chance, or he had some special reason unknown to us, perhaps because Xanthus had already treated of it.
Or should we conceive that Herodotus became acquainted with the Magian belief merely from oral tradition recounted by men who were not well disposed towards the Magi, and who, therefore, kept secret the name of the founder of their relisfion that in the silence of? After Xanthus the Lydian had explicitly treated of Zoroaster, after Herodotus had described the religious system founded by him, and after Plato's predecessors philosophy, Pythagoras and Democritus, had in been in intercourse with the Magi, we should not be surprised if.
This story is as. At any rate Zoroaster himself writes; ' These things have been written by Zoroaster, son of Armenius, a pamphylian, who died in battle, arrived in Hades and was taught there by the guds. He here perhaps metaphorically implies a resurrection, as well as the idea that through the way across the 12 zodiacal signs the soul is taken up, and says that by the same way the souls come down when they come into material existence.
Yasna ], 23? From which reasons have the later writers made him Zoroaster himself? The story itself scarcely contain any Zarathushtrian reminiscences.
Neither Plutarch, Sywpos. IX, 5, 2 : " That they speak of the intellectual nature of Heaven. As for the rest Arnobius, too, makes use of this passage adv.
Lugdunensis Lyon. Macrobius in Sonin. I, 1; " This relater of mysteries in Plato is a certain Er, a Pamphylian by birth, and a soldier by He seems to have died of the wounds which he had profession. On the 12th day after his death he was to have been honoured with the last rites of the pyre together with others who had fallen victims with him; but suddenly he revived or had perhaps retained bis life.
In this work Proclus mentions his own and Zoroaster's work, and the authors Cronius and Theodorus Asinaeus. System of Platonic Philosophy," I, p. For our purpose it will suffice to assume that Zoroaster was Greece in the time of Plato. However, both these statements presuppose that Persia and its. Diogsnes of Laerte Proem.
If we might take the words of Diogenes literally, they would imply. Plinius, Hist. Empire yet he mentions an incident relating to Ochns B. Each volume contained several secticms. From tlds excellent source a great deal is drawn that we read in Cornelius Nepos and Plutarch, and. Diogenes Lacrtius, Proem. This is also confirmed by rierniodorus.
Probably the interpreter sought in tlie. His name transhited into Greek means Astrutlmtes, a stnrworshipper. He left several books from which it is demonstrated that he professed three kinds of philosophv, fiz.
That Zoroaster had received his instruction from the. Quite unique stands the statement He was a Greek, or one of those who came forth from the Continent on the other side of it sounds the great sea.
This last expression is very obscure too Freunde to designate the Greeks of Asia Minor. Is it perhaps some reminiscence of tlie passage of the primitive man to the six Id'uhi-itis, which took place under Tahniurap? Or of the Altantis? The art of divination by magic was, as Dino affirms, abhorred by the Magi, who, lie says, on the contrary predict by means of twigs '. This statement is quite well founded if it is correctly understood. Images of gods were unknown to the ancient Persians. Diiion says, in the third chapter of the first book, that the Mediaia magicians, too, predict by staves.
It is clear that this opinion presupposes the idea of a higher antiquity of Zarathushtra than the short period of two hundred years which iuterveued between Uystaspes, the father of Darius, and Artaxerxes :. Greek the opinion that fire and water were considered by the Persians as symbols of the Deity. Cyrus and his future wars to Persia and Astyages wassailed with his friends, the most celebrated bard named Angares was called in, and he predicted the. Dino in his preserved also l y the barbarians, For the bards predicted the valour of Cyrus I.
For when, he says, Cyrus entered into Persia, he met at first the mace-bearers and afterwards the life-guards; when Astyages was carousing with his friends and Angares, the most famous of the bards who was called in, was singing the ordinary At the end of the feast, he says, a great beast is sent away into songs. As soon as he begins to rule the moor, stronger than a wild boar.
But wheu neighbourhood, he easily combats with many. Is to his marshes gone, why should he go? When master of the country all around.
To hunters he will prove a deadly foe. Another similar fact from Dino has been preserved by Cyrus seas in a dream the sun at his feet, and of him, until.
God, the splendour, the fortune of kings, so often spoken of in the Avesta texts, and which is said in Zamyad Yashtt 56 seg. The parallel for. I do not hence conclude that Dino himself had passages like those of the Vasht cited above, lying before him, yet I may is. For, AYhen lie was sleeping the sun appeared to be at his feet, aiid he soaglit three times in vain to touch him witli his hand, when the. So it was; for after having bfgnu to reigu at 40, he lived to 70 years.
Though somewlnit younger than Dino and Plato, Aristotle devoted is. Zoroaster lived six thousand years before the death of Plato. Indeed we have to regret very much the loss of these books of Aiistotle, the master of philosophy, as they.
Not the less should we regret the loss of that book which the renowned historian Theopompus, in his great. The first, they say. Zeus and Oromazdes, the second Hades and Areimanios. Nat XXX, 1, 2;'' Eudoxus who thinks that they are among the most celebrated and useful section of philosophers, latter. From him drew also Plutarch,' who quotes him by name.
Here I add, therefore, those invaluable frao-ments of Greek knowledge on Magism, abstainin- from any detailed explanation concerning those points which are or will be '.
For, some of the plants they regard as pertaining to the good God, while others to the evil Demon and some of the animals, as e. Oromazes emanating from the purest and Areimanios from darkness, fight against each other. Oromazes created six Amesha-Spentas the first : :. Areimanios made an equal number, as it were, of antagonists. Afterwards Oromazes enlaro-ed himself threefold. And when Oromazes created iifuardian and foreranner. But Theopompus says that, according to the Magi, one of these divine powers will reign by turns for three thousand years Avhen the other will be swayed over f r another 3, years they will combat and war against each other, and the one will destroy the creation of the other.
But at lenu'th Hades will succumb and men shall be happy, neither wanting food nor throwing ;. The Supreme Power, who is to effect this, and repose for a time, though long in itself, yet moderate for the God as if He were a sleeping man. Vendiddl, Farg. X, 9,10,13,16 XI, 8, seg. Wo must not put stress, therefore, upon the word thei? But it is not affirmed by the Avesta texts.
The Huzvaresh translation gives the name zuzah comp. Bundahish, Westergaard's edition, p. Sad-dar, chap. N'atural History Trans. Quaest conviv. Haug, GdtJis, p.
Yasna XVI, 3 seq. Truly I know no Avestic passage in which the uniis represented as an egg a conception very common. XLIV, 8 seq. The sky is arranged above the earth, like an egg, by the direct help of the Creator Aiiharmazd and the semblance of the earth, in the midst of. This, however, is. Ill, If we compare the Proem 1 cited from Sotion, with the Proemswe are led to assume that the whole passage is taken from Sotion or Aristotleand that the quotation :.
That the gymnosophists condemn also death, is said by Clitarchus in "Some say that the work of philosophy began with Proem 1 the heathens. There were the Magi among the Persians, Chaldseans, and Babylonians or Assyrians, the gymnosophists among the Indians, the so-called drnids and semmotheists among the Celts and Galatiang, according to the testimony of Aristotle in his Magika, and of Sotion Comp, ibid 7.
But idols of the gods are contemned by them, particularly by those who fancy They preach the gods to be male and female spirits. Yet mantical sorcery quite unknown to them as is stated by Aristotle the Mojikos, and by Dino in the fifth book of his. Mit lira and Anhiia for example, who are quite cerMoreover, it is true tainly male and female beings. Notwithwas, or when he lived, is nowhere mentioned. This Hermippus, the disciple of who lived when very old under Ptolemaeus Energetes, and who died about preparatory labours.
Chad displayed his great literary activity in the second part of the third century before Christ and. Probably he is identical with the Peripatetician Hermippus cited by Hieronymus in De to the.
I believe that we liave here Hist. They are followed by Lozynski and Mller too. They as well as Oehler and Orelli have a punctuation after auctori, and connect the word Bactrianus with the following Bactrianus et ille. Heraldus in his Aniniarlr. Auch, concerning the resistance. Zoroaster :. Tlioo Progynmast in the book on ' Comparisons," says: "For, if Tomyris is stronger than Cyrus, or Semiramis stronger than the Bactrian Zoroaster, we must not, therefore, conclude that a female Justinus, Hist.
The codex has, according to OehGent, 1, ler, the words 5? The words magus inferiore ab orhe Zoroastres, "above the fiery zone from the inTgnea zona, " the terior circle the Magus Zoroaster," are very obscure.
Interiors ab orbe, "from the inner orbit," might perhaps mean " from the central orbit," in opposition to Bactrianus; but it might also denote the inner magical circle out of which Zoroaster comes from the burning mountain through fire, or above the fire-circle. Or interiore ab orbe might perhaps refer to the opinion which represents Zoroaster as an offspring of the Greeks see supra the Scholinfit of. Herein three things are related of Hermippns - 1 that he placed Zoroaster three thousand :.
If this hypothesis is correct, it proves the independent investigation of Hermippus and his knowledge of the Avesta Adcris perhaps a translation of Atropatene, or Strabo, XT, fire-land. Atropatene originally signifying the Atropatene p. Athra-2K iti means in Avesta " the master of the fire," or dthrd-puta "the protector of the fire," or " he who is protected by fire," or as in the Farv.
Vishtaspa so called. In the Bunelahish the country is calhd Atro Atiinypdtkdn. The birth of Zarathushtra is said to have taken place at Urmi in Atropatene. The Greeks knew right well that AhiiraMazda Himself wns the teacher of Zoroaster for in no other way must the Platonian words Zor cast res o tou language. It is evident that the word explanavit C' he has explained" must not be urged, or taken Zoroastrian writings- Avhich were illustrated.
Most probHermippus became acquainted with a synopsis of ably the contents of the twenty-one Nasks of the A vesta. Only a small remnant of prayer :. The whole mass these Nasks has been preserved. Yendidd Freunde about 4, lines, each chapter, therefore, having about Each page in it has 19 lines, and the whole book. If the volumes described by Hermippus were perhaps in form and handwriting of the same extent as that codex we may believe that in an older time they were still larger, grander, and more and if we assume that the same average is extensive applicable for all the chapters of the Nasks, the whole sum of the stichoi or lines of the Nasks amounts toor, if some chapters were shorter, to about dcna milia versuiun Gr.
That the division into Nasks is no invention of hiter writers, is proved by the well-known Avesta passage. Such is the result of the informations of antiquity, which date back a lono; time before the Christian era, and consequently before the time when there was an intermixture of religions in the. There existed a Greek book under Hystaspes at tlie end of the second century. Pottersays that tlie heatliens Lave also liad their prophets, and alkides to a word of the Apostle Paul borrowed either from tradition or some Panlinian apocryphal book.
Justinus, Jpol. Hystaspes had a dream about things to come, which was interpreted to him by a prophetic boy. In this was a description of the son of God, and how the kings of this earth persecuted him besides the decay of the Roman Empire and the destruction of the world in fire.
According to the context of Apology, I, 44, the book must also have treated of the fate of man after death. The book must have been known at any rate in the first century befure Christ. Bundaliish, p, 79, 1. We must consider the whole passage which. They venerate also the Stm whom they call Mithrathe Mocm, the Aphrodite, fire, earth, winds and water.
Then they kindle it and add fuel to it not blowing but fanning it. They kill those who blow out the fire, or lay a corpse, or anything dead or They sacrifice to the water by filthy, on the fire. Afterwards they dismember the flesh and place it on myrtle or laurel, and the Magi touch it with fine staves, singing, pouring out oil mixed with milk and honey, not into the fire nor into the water, but on the soil, and while they are. There are also fireburning places, certiin remarkable inclosures, in tiie midst of which stands an altar full of ashes, on wdiich daily they the Magi preserve inextinguishable fire enter it, and sing for nearly an hour, holding a bundle.
These thijigs we have now seen, but those previously mentioned are related in historical books just like the following. In the Bundaliisli p. According to Agathias, people of the lower ranks this way, who in the army contracted According to Onesicritus, sick and old evil maladies. The Avesta texts, people in general were so treated. Wherever the earth upon Aliura Mazda answered waterless, treeless, cleanest, driest, and the least is most passed through by cattle and team, and by the fire of Ahura Mazda, and by the baresma spread in purity, and by the faithful man.
How flir from the pure or clean water? How from the spread baresma? How far from the faithful men? But when he has grown old or sick, and quite invalid, the strongest, swiftest, and most skilful Mazdayasnians are to lead him on a mountain, and to cut his head off from the breadth of his back, and deliver his corpse to the hungry and corpse-devouring creatures of the Holy Genius, i.
So we are fully justified in ascribing to Hermippus those notes on the Magi and Zoroaster, which are given by Plinius without specially mentioning his authority. Osthanes another Zoroaster of Proconnesus had lived as some trustworthy writers have related. Osthanes had awakened an ardent states that a short time before this. Osthanes chiefly excited the Greek nation to that pitch not of eagerness but of frenzy for this art, although I see that in the earliest time, and nearly alwavs, the greatest literary glory and excellence Avas sought There is also another magical sect depending on the in this art.
Jews Moses, Jannes and Lota pea but it was many thousand years In the period of still younger is the Cyprian art. In the time of Alexander, too, a second Osthanes, as pre-eminent as his companion, had given no small importance to this art. I have treated of this Osthanes in another discom'se.
Accordins; to Plinius, there can be no doubt as to the reality of his person and books. We wish that Plinius had more aster. IV, 15 places Aristeas of Proconnesus years before his time, that is, in. The miraculous story of Aristeas by Herodotus he died at a tanner's house, who had shut him up in his shop, and armounced his death to his relations that he had been seen by some one while on his route to Cyzicus, and had not been the seventh century.
Euechius and Chomasbelus to the former he gives four and five sossiand who are said to have reigned 33, years. After this the Hist. Sympos, IV, 1, p. I, p. Medians it is related had taken Bibylon, an;] then eight Median tyrants had reigned 22 1 years, whose afterwards names have been preserved by Berosus kings " -iS years" stands on the margin of the eleven then fortymanuscript Gutschmidt supposes then nine Arab nine Ch.
Semiramis who had reigned over the Assyrians, and then explicitly again the names of 45 kings who had Afterwards Phul reio'ned for a period of years. The Median rulers over Babylon and the kings who followed them down to Phul, seem to be historical focts and learned. For mythologists thinking earlier kings to be gods. The later kings, on. Audi recounted, principally the story of Hellanicus the Lesbian, and Ctesias the Cnidian, then Herodotus the Halicarnassian.
At first there reigned in Asia the Assyrians, of whom the first was Niiius, the son of Heins, during whose time very many and very splendid achievements had been performed,' Further on he adds the birth of Semiramis and a narrative of the combat and defeat of the Magus Zoroaster, King of. Zaravesht, King of B-actria, of his war against and Niniis, Cephalion says, reigned defeat by Semiramis. The latter Babylon by a wall, and then undertook the surrounded unlucky war against India.
For whilst Eusebius makes Cephalion state the age of Ninus to be 52 years, Syncellus places. Magus and Median ruler in Armenia, made the ing the. After Niuus reigned Semiramis, and fortified Babylon in the form which has been described by many authors, viz. Then he relates that Semiramis waged a war against the Indians, but was defeated and put to flight, etc.
Next he continues. Magian and King that Zervan was the beginning and father of the deities and many other things he has fabled about him which cannot be repeat I, p.
He expressly names Ctesins his. Further, that he then delayed the war against Bactria and founded. Semiramis is asserted, as Diodorus states in harmony with Cephalion in chapter V " But what tradition says about the birth of Semh'amis is this. Secondly, tlie passages" in. Ninus and Abraham mention Zoroaster in the seventh compare Ensebius, Chiton. Auch Praep. X, 9 a difference of to years. Magian Zoroaster a contemporary of Semiramis, position of a Bactrian King which for is. Zarathushtra has royal dignity or kingshipthough he is said to be the lord of all ranks and orders.
On the contrary, Vishtcispa original. Bonnwherewith Wishing to dull and stupid people were amazed as with a wonder. Zoroaster, extolled hira so much the more, notFor they saw that he had been punisiied by death. They also venerated him as a living star. Hence he was called after his decease Zoroaster, i. After he had begun in the 14th generation, he died in the 15th, in which the Babylonian Tower was erected and the languages of men were divided into many varieties.
Hira the. The " Recognitions" say: "This Zoroaster began his life in the fourteenth generation, and died in the fifteenth, at the time when the Tower of Babel was built, and thero was a confusion of lano;"uao-e3," But these fourteen generations are the ten from Adam to Noah inclusive, then Cham, Chus and Nimrod but which generation is.
Greeks call Zoroaster. Yet the ignorant people of those times, thinking that his soul was taken up by the thunderstroke owing to his love of God, interred the remains of the body, but honoured the tomb by a temple built in Persia where the bringing down of fire had taken place.
He was honoured like a god, and after this example others, too, who died there by the thunderstroke. After them the Babylonians stole coals of this fire, and preserved them in their houses and adored it, and they got the empire subsequently.
It is possible that the reminiscences of a Median king Zoroaster in Babylon. Ximrod, stood to minds of these authors. This reminds us of the pa in' kas, which, according to the Tir. For the hvarena of kings is a brilliancy of lio-ht which orioinates from God Ahura. And the Persians did as he had bidden them, and they still keep the ashes of him which remain until our days. Das Phantom auf dem Feuerstuhl. Angst in der 9a. Abenteuer im Ferienlager.
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